Close Little Wars: Featherstone’s simplest rules?

Vintage veteran Airfix figures Redcoats versus Settlers  (Photo / figures: Man of TIN)
More vintage Airfix desert warriors fight over a desert hexscape. (Photo / game: Man of TIN)

To me, gaming since childhood,  many rule sets look frighteningly both expensive and offputtingly complex what with ‘combat factors’ and worse still,  lots of unfamiliar dice (always a bad sign that there’ll be advanced maths involved).

Airfix have recently launched or franchised a new battle game ‘system’ by Modiphius Games. It looks beautifully produced. You can use your old or new Airfix figures. It uses classic and familiar Airfix box artwork for illustrations. But is it more hidden maths? Is this likely to be as complicated to me as many of those dungeons and dragons rules that  I could never understand as a child? (They also had lots of strange dice, another giveaway).

My Bish Bash Am-Bush ‘Close Wars’ rules
I currently use my adapted version of the simple two page appendix rules for ‘Close Wars’ out of the back of Donald Featherstone’s War Games 1962 book.

This book pictured below is a very old favourite: it’s the original copy from my childhood local branch library, withdrawn from lending and sold to me many years later. Still by my bedside and frequently reread.


Donald Featherstone, War Games, published by Stanley Paul, 1962.

Simple as Featherstone’s rules are in War Games, these two pages have always been a delight. They make up the core of my own fast quick simple small number of figures game that I can quickly and easily set up and play solo.

“It must be confessed that the question of how to fight a successful action with natives against disciplined troops has yet to be completely solved by the writer.”

This is a gaming problem that Donald Featherstone mentions with several brief solutions on page 58 of his “How to Start a War Game” chapter in War Games (1962). He solves it pretty well in my view in his Close Wars appendix (page 149-150).

A keen Colonial gamer, Featherstone was focussed here on “the type of fighting that happens between small numbers of men in forests, such as in the French and Indian Wars of the late eighteenth century in America” (page 149). Close Wars has many applications to other periods as brutal fighting in forests between organised troops and natives has not changed much since Ancient times.

Look out for future Close Little Wars scenarios and inspirations blogposts.

What do I  like most about the Close Wars rules ?

  1. “Small numbers of men in forests”, possibly large figure sizes

I’ve always liked these simple fast  Bish Bash Am-Bush rules using about 20 to 25 odd figures each side. If rules have figures representing more than 1 figure: 1 man I get brain freeze and lose interest …

With such small numbers, you can also have Close Little Wars games set in many periods with only needing a few figures each side. Alternatively as I usually play Bronte style “imagi-nations”, I often mix the periods up if suitable figures aren’t around; this is not far from the plot of  the 1969 Dr. Who ‘The War Game’ episodes (still available in book, audiobook or DVD form).

A cluttered terrain of Heroscape hexes and natural materials on a handy portable tray,  set out for 15mm Peter Laing figures. (Photo / game: Man of TIN)

2. “The terrain must be crowded with material

“To play chess one needs a chessboard”, Featherstone writes as his opening to chapter 3, “How to Lay Out a Battlefield”.

After years of raiding and returning natural materials to the  garden and yard for Close Wars terrain, I tried not very successfully making my own interlocking paper hexes (a bit like those “endless landscape” cards from Tobar / Hawkin’s Bazaar). Fiddly and unfulfilling. Much more happily, I then found on Ebay several damaged starter boxes of plastic MB ‘Heroscape’ sets, bought  mostly to acquire the interlocking plastic hex tiles of rock, water, mud (and whatever else you paint them as ).

The starter sets include some useful fantastic / fantasy figures, dragons and usual (to me) incomprehensible rules.  I think this game system bombed in the US and UK, apart from a very very niche cult following, hence the cheap starter sets around. I bought Heroscape partly so that I can build quick 3D landscapes for these Close Wars scenarios.

3D hex terrain using Heroscape terrain fought over by a mixed bunch of Peter Laing 15mm natives versus redcoats. Photo/ game: Man of TIN

Heroscape is almost a 3D kind of early Minecraft but also combines well with natural materials. You can use the hexes as they come already coloured. Alternatively you can flock them, gravel them with railway ballast or fine beach sand / stones or paint them.

Piled up with garden or hard sourced twig logs, stones, lichen and moss bushes and other impassable features, these Heroscape hexes work really well with even just a small tray or table for a short skirmish. Being hexes, with adapted rules, there is  no need for rulers and measuring inches.

“Fill any bare spaces with pieces of twig to represent fallen logs and trees …” Donald Featherstone.

Using natural materials to enhance the hex boards feels a little like the joy of  Garden Wargames but with the comfort of indoors! A little less fuss about wet weather and creaky knees but still retaining some of the childhood fun of “fight them on the beaches” (sandpit), the “landing grounds” (lawn), the “jungles and forests” (shrubbery and flower beds) of childhood. A bit of dirt, some fresh air and sunshine, all that the childhood gurus want for modern children held prisoner indoors by tiny screens. Maybe Heroscape hexes are the indoor Terrarium or Bottle Garden version of garden wargaming, but it’s not far off the improvised spirit of H.G. Wells’ Floor Games and Little Wars use of real sprigs of bush and hedge trimmings.

I have also rediscovered on Project Gutenberg the original HG Wells Little Wars rules that I read once as a child in reprint and could never borrow again from my local  branch library. It’s charmingly illustrated with line drawings in a suitably childish toy soldier way. Floor Games by Wells is also available on Project Gutenberg.

Peter Laing 15mm ‘native’ bowmen (really Egyptians) defend the bridge amid a crowded Close Little Wars hex game board. (Photo / game: Man of TIN)

3. Flexible scales and figure sizes 

My version of Donald Featherstone’s Close Wars rules and these interconnecting Heroscape hexes work really well with my original childhood 15mm Peter Laing English Civil War figures. I have been buying up some  EBay oddments of Peter Laing figures, becoming more collectable now that Peter Laing has retired and the moulds vanished. (More on collecting Peter Laing in future blogposts.)

The rules and hexes work equally well with Airfix OO/HO or 1:72 figures.



As I scale up to DIY made ‘cakes of death’ figures (round about an inch high) or 30 to 40mm Prince August and Schneider home cast figures, I shall have to rethink the original Close Wars inches or my hexed up Bish Bash Am-Bush movement and shooting ranges.

Keeping the same inch / hex move and fire ranges for different scale figures  presents some problems. Presumably the bigger the figure, the shorter the time period each hex move represents (if you simplistically keep to the same hex movement ranges) ? This doesn’t solve the firing range problem though.

There are some interesting thoughts on scaling up and down ranges and distances on the Sheil’s USA simple ‘sandpit’ rules for using plastic pound store figures on the Sheil family’s lovely USA Toy Army Men section of their Thor Trains website, adaptable to the garden, beach, sandpit or floor (though even these rapidly become a little complex for me).

You decide what the basic range is. All others are multiples of that range.

The Sheil family “Jersey Shore Battle Games: The Basics”

More on ranges and scales and Sheil family rules etc on a future blogpost The Sheil Sandpit rules seem to be in the spirit of H.G. Wells’ original rules.

And finally …

Close Little Wars, Bish Bash Bush! or Bish Bash Am-Bush!

Rules adapted from ‘Close Wars’ the 2 page Appendix of Donald Featherstone’s War Games (1962) in respectful tribute to Donald Featherstone (1918-2013)

Fast, simple and often fatal rules for small troop action versus ‘natives’ in cluttered bush terrain on a small scale table or hex grid for 15mm and 20mm troops or even outdoors with 54 mm troops in the garden, yard or sand pit.

Suits Cowboys, Indians, Bandits, Pirates, French-Indian wars, Natives and others … Whatever you have …

Especially suitable for solo play.

Donald Featherstone sets out simple aims or what would now be called Victory Conditions:

The aim of each force unless otherwise described is:
1. to seek out and destroy their enemy.
2. Alternatively, to get at least 50% of your troops to the opposite enemy baseline

However for each game, you can set your own scenario end or Victory Conditions. This usually involves fighting to the last man, but occasionally involves rescuing or escorting to safety the Governor General’s Daughter (always the same handy Airfix Wagon Train girl or lady civilian) or the secret plans.

Movement Rates

Natives on foot move 9 inches per move or 3 hex / squares.

Troops in groups of 3 or less also move 9 inches or 3 hex / squares.

Uphill moves count as 2 hex / squares or half a move e.g. 4.5 inches.

Troops in groups of 4 or more move only 6 inches per move or 2 hex / squares. (Uphill moves of 1 hex square).

Difficult Terrain
If deemed passable, Fording streams take 3 inches or 1 hex to cross. Fording places or bridges can be marked out.

Bogs and marshes (if deemed passable) at half speed eg 1 or 2 hex squares.

Moves on clear paths or roads (if they exist) have 3 inch extra or 1 hex extra BONUS.

Firing (if range of fire clear)
Range of rifles and longbows or crossbows (slingshots?) – 12 inches or 4 hexes
Pistols and spears half range – 6 inches or 2 hexes.

Throw one d6 dice per firing man: 6 scores a hit.
If firer is under cover or in buildings, 5 or 6 scores a hit on enemy.

For each man hit, throw a casualty saving throw.
If fired on, each casualty has a d6 thrown for him. 4,5,6 wounded and carry on. If 123, casualty is  deaded.
If casualty under cover, 3,4,5,6 wounded and carry on. 123 deaded.

To check line of sight / range of fire, the Lionel Tarr reversed periscope can be used for fun to get you down to table top toy soldier eye level.

Periscope from Tiger high street  stores, about £1 to £2.


Taking Turns

Turns consist of four sections:
a) First side moves (possible melee)
b) Other side fires.
c) First side fires
d) Other side moves (possible melee)

Throw dice at start of each game turn for each side to see who moves first.

Variations on this include: 1st  side Move, 2nd side Move, 1st side  Fire, 2nd side  Fire.

Melee / Messy Bish Bash Bush bit!
Assume each man has something to fight at close hand with (pistols, clubs, swords, rifles, bayonets, fists or boots, etc)

We are playing 1:1 scale each figure represents one man.

Melee is joined when one group of figures invades or faces the other square / hex.

You can add +1 to d6 throw for attacking side  if you choose / can be bothered. This is what Featherstone calls impetus bonus.

Choose pairs (of attacker vs. defender) and throw 1 d6 for each man involved.
Attacker can have  the + 1 added to their d6 dice throw (if you choose or can be bothered).
Highest score wins, loser throws casualty saving throw to see if killed 1-3 or only wounded / unharmed.
Continue until each man has been involved in melee.

“Usual dice saving throws for melee Casualties”  – Donald Featherstone. Or not if you want to speed things up. 


Melee Morale Test (if desired / wanted / can be bothered)
At end of melee session, throw d6 for each side to see who wins melee morale test and who retires 1 hex backwards.
Then d6 again for losers to see if routed:

Throw 1-3 in rout unable to fire or move further that round. Roll again next move to see if still routed and retreating. A suitable coloured marker can be added to remember this.
or throw 4-6 in good order, retreat only one pace / hex.

Not really got round to adding cavalry or cannons yet in this Last of the Mohicans / Robin Hood / Hollywood B Movie cowboy ambush bash up or mash up. 

Featherstone also adds the final paragraph section about attacking troops in the flank or rear that you can choose to use or not. Keep it as simple as you like.


Ancient warriors rules
If using your Knights,  ancients or partly armoured men, Featherstone (and Tony Bath?) Ancients rules from War Games (1962) had various protection/ survival elements modifying casualty saving throws after firing or melee. Use as you see fit:

If casualty unarmoured and without shield,  throw 6 to live.
If casualty wearing armour or shield, 5 or 6 to live.
If armour and shield, 4,5 or 6 to live.
Unarmoured cavalry 5 or 6 to live (6 saves rider alone).
Armoured cavalry 4, 5 or 6 to live (4 saves rider alone).

Inevitably over time, new troops acquired will need new rules. What about cavalry, if they can operate in such Close Wars terrain? What about artillery? It might be a small forest outpost fort you are defending with your single gun … An artillery train would be near impossible in such cluttered terrain as the British fought over  in America.

Close Wars has many possible small fort scenarios – awaiting the relieving column, escorting a supply wagon, sending out or rescuing a patrol.

Most important rule 
If you’re ever not sure of the rules or what to do next, especially if playing solo: If in doubt about a decision or situation devise a suitable d6 dice throw e.g. Roll 1 to 3,  group retreat to safety, roll 4 to 6 attack nearest enemies.

Another example of a rule that was needed on the spot when troops had some rescued civilians / the Governor General’s daughter with them and were surrounded in a building: If figures are holed up in a building, throw 6 for automatic risking breakout (unless group decide or are ordered to leave). But then do civilians always follow orders? Throw again: 1 to 3 non combatants stay, 4 to 6 non combatants or civilians leave with the troops.

Another example of a “made up dice throw rule” which emerged:
Crossing bridges (or fordable rivers)
Throw d6 for each man, roll 1= Lose footing and  lost in river, to be eaten by crocodiles and piranhas etc; you can use casualty saving throws or not as required.

Officer casualties: If needed to determine an officer casualty amongst group, throw a coloured dice (for officer) amongst X others for correct X number of men. Lowest score loses etc. To be fair, officers don’t have much of a magical morale rule or role  anyway in this Close Little Wars scenario.

Add rules or make them up as needed, play as you go …

Misquoting Miley Cyrus, “This is our house , this is our rules …” and I’m sticking to them for now. Anyway I don’t tend to argue with myself, playing solo.


I think Stuart Asquith summed it up well when he finished his “Comfortable Wargaming” article: “Note: There are no units, no morale throws” etc. and “no need to spent 30 quid on rules Sets either“. Read his  article (generous free download!) on the Lone Warrior solo wargamers association newsletter website:

Happy gaming!

Leave your thoughts through the comments pages.

Posted by Mr. MIN, Man of TIN, June 2016.


18 thoughts on “Close Little Wars: Featherstone’s simplest rules?”

  1. […] As far as WW2 rules go, I have always opted for bits from Donald Featherstone / Lionel Tarr’s simplest WW2 rules in Featherstone’s 1962 book War Games. I look forward to a “mash up” with his Featherstone’s Close Wars Rules appendix to War Games. […]


  2. I have just come across your blog. I look forward to following it. I am a big fan of Peter Laing figures and Heroscape terrain. Your tray for terrain is intriguing and might have to be copied! Also your usage of different periods brings the “LittleWars” feel to your game. My next goal is to find a copy of the Sept. 1983 Military Modeling magazine article of the Maori Wars. Good luck and success to your blog!


    1. Hello John the Wargames Hermit
      Lovely to hear from you – I have greatly enjoyed reading your blog over the last few months as you also play solo, with Peter Laings, hex Heroscape terrain etc.

      I posted a link to your site and used one of your photos of the Danish blue painted Herald Guardsman, a few posts later doing the same paint conversion on an old OO/HO Airfix guards colour party pair. Will do more of these blue figures in the coming weeks, very Close Little Wars, so thanks for the inspiration.

      I will track down my copy of Military Modelling Sept 1983; to tackle the paper mountain before a family house move, I hacked my Mil Mod Mags to pieces and kept the best bits. I can then post the missing half page / rules bit on a separate blog post with some new Maori links. At the time I just wanted to share the fabulous Peter Laing figure carpet forest photos. Hopefully Andy Callan won’t mind me reproducing these rules after 33 years. Look at the new ECW paper warriors book by Helion – Andy Callan’s still producing rules, what an amazing career. I will take them back down if he is unhappy. This rule set may also exist elsewhere archived on the Internet etc.
      There are definitely copies of Mil Mod Sept 83 on ‘magazine exchange’ and other sites. Interesting Wikipedia entry on the Musket Wars and the Maori Wars in New Zealand that I found recently and Ian Knight’s Osprey book is definitely worth a look.

      The tray / sided box lid is worth a blog post I think. It works well for small Hex games and have found a larger box lid for larger games or to run alongside it. Hex gap Infills at the side are filled up with tiny trimming offcuts of AstroTurf / fake grass scrounged from work before they were thrown away.
      I use this wooden tray / lid / wargames board as a solo gamer so that I can put it away on a shelf and come back to it figures in situ. I just keep end of Turn cliffhanger notes as I go / finish, so that I can pick up the game again and am slowly working through different ways of writing these up that are of interest from rules playtesting or inspiring creative writing ideas. This nomadic wargames board is usually moved if the dining table is needed or it gets too late, not having a dedicated gaming space or workshop at the moment in our busy family home, just the traditional roll top desk sort of thing. Nothing has changed since childhood where the dining table was cleared as wanted when everything stopped for tea, dinner, whatever!
      I was contacted this weekend by Ian Dury a fellow Peter Laing enthusiast and he mentioned that you both exchange P L photos etc – great to be able to chat about our shared interests. I will copy this reply / comment to you by email too.
      I have really enjoyed seeing your posts about unpacking the Peter Laing sample packs and helpful for identifying some of the odder figures. How I hope the
      Many best wishes and happy gaming! Mark (aka Mr MIN, Man of TIN)


  3. Hoping to run my extra-simplified Close Wars rules tomorrow at a local convention at which my workplace has a booth! Also may run the JuniorGeneral Jutland rules. We played Featherstonian Revolutionary rules today in the club (most of the players didn’t like the maths!) and I got the scenery guru to loan me a handful of his trees and rubber trails for the game.


  4. I`ve just come across your blog and your referencing of Close Wars. I have had a copy of Don Featherstone`s Wargames for years and oddly I had never read Appendix 2. I never knew the rules were there. I`ve just checked and they are. Many thanks Man of Tin.


  5. Thanks for your work on these rules. I’m using a modified/stripped down version of my own for solo play and it has thus far been greatly enjoyable. I also especially like your heroscape game board/tray system, and would like to hear more, if you’re still considering writing a post about it. (Or perhaps you already did… and I haven’t found it digging in your prior posts yet…?)

    Looking forward to future posts from you, soldiersoftin. Good luck to you, and keep on blogging on!


    1. Thanks for your comments, Stealth, I’m glad Close Wars is proving an interesting set of rules, especially for solo play. I am looking at them afresh for the Wide Games Scouting Rules I am working on. The solo bit will be the challenge. Hopefully with Alan’s input at the Duchy of Tradgardland (another excelllent blog) some versatile rules will emerge for solo or normal play.
      The hex board or boards are built and in use – have a look at various blog entries including


  6. I like how with these rules small numbers of figures on their own have greater mobility, which would give them the chance to reach cover more often than the larger units, which would be slower, and of course with these rules, being in cover is a big advantage. It seems with a lot of war game systems there is very little advantage to having small units so it is nice to see a system which fixes this.
    With your post on the battle you staged on the Planet Yarden you implied using the saving rolls was optional and certainly when the two sides are using futuristic weapons, which presumably utilise advancements in ensuring they kill or incapacitate their targets, this makes sense.
    I am wondering whether a fully trained Jedi armed with a lightsabre would count as having mobile cover…

    I think the one real change I would want to make with these rules would be to have some figures better at hitting. With me there is always at least one figure or group of figures I would want to perform better. You could have anything from hits on a 5 or 6 when not in cover and shooting at exposed targets and 4, 5 or 6 when they are in cover, or at the furthest extreme 3+ or 2+ if in cover etc

    Yours sincerely

    Mark Dowson


    1. Mark
      Thanks for your comments. Like you, I like the simplicity of these two page early Featherstone rules (albeit reading the rest of the War Games book helps) and have done so ever since I first read them probably forty years ago now in a much borrowed library copy.
      It has lots of simple points (others would say too simplistic) that you can agree to adapt or discard depending on the nature of the game.
      Smaller groups of troops of three or less / not in formation would of course travel more like the natives, travelling on or off road faster than formations of three or more. (Over four would of course be Fourmations?)
      Depending on the period and firearms, and the cluttered forest terrain or cover (so also akin to FIBUA, fighting in a built up area) I think you can adjust the firepower rolls regarding cover as you have said. The firepower and movement works as much for these French Indian Wars as Vietnam or WW2 jungles.
      You can discard the casualty savings throws if you need a quick fast game.

      I use A simpler melee system of individuals vs each other on dice throw etc.

      Morale in such small formations? The simple rout or good order retreat rule works well and opens up crowded spaces.

      I just keep coming back to these Close Wars and the War Games rules repeatedly for simple fast fun games especially at Skirmish level for almost any period – just add two boxes of Airfix figures.

      The Planet Yarden ‘Close Little Star Wars’ variant is good fun – I haven’t fought or thought through the laser sword option (mobile Force field or mobile cover?). Is it a sword and or shield in melee terms? I have collected a few more types of Tim Mee Galaxy and other Star Wars / space figures for ‘next time’ but the Scouting Wide Games and Snowball Fight games happened instead.


      1. If you do have a Return to Planet Yarden or a “Close Little Star Wars” or equivalent in some other setting with your new figures joining in the action, I will be interested in seeing a post on it.


    2. Re your comment on “With your post on the battle you staged on the Planet Yarden you implied using the saving rolls was optional and certainly when the two sides are using futuristic weapons, which presumably utilise advancements in ensuring they kill or incapacitate their targets, this makes sense.” The simplest answer or proof is from the Stormtroopers early in the original Star Wars movie – “there’s one. Set to stun”. Or “set for stun”.


      1. I’m afraid that by incapacitated I was not thinking of anything as benign as a blaster stun setting. I was assuming tactically you want your enemies not to be able to fight back once you have hit them so either dead, unconscious or unfortunately in to much pain to do anything. Presumably you would only make the switch from conventional projectile weapons to energy ones if the latter was more effective in this regard.
        For the really ruthless and nasty I gather having enemy soldiers survive but permanently crippled and unable to fight ever again has advantages when it comes to long campaigns, since the enemy either has to spend resources looking after ex-soldiers or suffer even worse moral problems if their troops know the crippled will be forsaken.
        I do remember learning in school there was some historic incident where captured soldiers were deliberately sent back to their own side after it was made sure none of them would be able to fight or help with the war effort.


      2. The moral element introduced by having or not having casualty savings throws!

        I was thinking benign re: ‘stun’. What happens afterwards to prisoners etc rarely features in my games, however would be an important feature of campaigns. The conventional Featherstone campaign trick is to regard the dead in threes – dead, walking wounded and severely wounded – and so some able to return (be recycled as figures) back into the game after so many games / days / turns.

        The terror of sci-fi is this nasty ruthlessness, which makes the Daleks, Stormtroopers, Cybermen etc so scary – they take no prisoners etc. (Alternately you can view Stormtroopers are just laser cannon fodder for the good guys.) This was the terror of the Cossacks harrying the baggage train and stragglers etc.

        Prisoners throughout history rarely fared well anyway in terms of poor health in many conflicts anyway, due to disease, starvation etc seen in countless Wars. Featherstone’s preface to War Games 1962 notes that quote “One well known player shows an admirable side to his nature by having the most humane rules covering prisoners of war, whereas most players just can’t be bothered about them!” Unquote.

        Such an approach was given to certain forces – snipers traditionally shot on capture – and commandos, spies and special forces, after the infamous “Commando order” and “Night and Fog” given by Hitler. Allegedly this is where the traditional British V sign came from, from archers showing the enemy they still have their archery arrow fingers to draw a bow.

        This is set against the Toy Story “No Man Left Behind” approach. This is what Donald Featherstone would call the “very enjoyable games to be carried on, with no bloodshed, widows, orphans or nuclear weapons” (Preface to War Games), amongst many variations of maxims sometimes known to gamers as “No Lead Orphans, No Lead Widows” and “None Braver than a Toy Soldier”.

        Luckily many of my games, as in the playgrounds and tables of my childhood, are slightly fictionalised versions of history or complete pure ImagiNations, the ethics of kill stun or crippled, what to do with prisoners etc. do not often really apply.

        In Scouting Wide Games for the Tabletop that I am working in, in small patrol numbers, capturing and then having to escort prisoners back to base takes out not only a lot of the other players forces but also ties up your own for a while too. Some strategy required here!


  7. I guess the advantage with fiction is we can have the conflicts wonderfully black and white, which I certainly prefer, with none of the shades of grey in conflicts in reality. We can have the enemy troopers as selected from the worst of the worst and yet are always killed humanely by the heroes. And of course heroes occasional get hurt so they can be more heroic in keeping going. Then there’s the recurring villains who play dead, when they realise how the battle is going so they can come back later…


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